Publications: L

Lacey, I., 'Free speech and the right to freedom from racial vilification' (1993), Civil Liberty, 151, 5

Lal, V., 'Implications of American Islamophobia' (2015), Economic and Political Weekly, 50(51), pp.12-14
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Lalić, V. & Đurić, S., 'Policing hate crimes in Bosnia and Herzegovina' (2017), Policing and Society [online], pp.1-19
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Lambert, E.G., Ventura, L.A., Hall, D.E. & Cluse-Tolar, T., 'College students’ views on gay and lesbian issues' (2008), Journal of Homosexuality, 50(4), pp.1-30
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Lamble, S., 'Queer Necropolitics and the Expanding Carceral State: Interrogating Sexual Investments in Punishment' (2013), Law and Critique, 24(3), pp.229-253
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Landa, D.E., and New South Wales Office of the Ombudsman, 'Public interest in releasing the Ombudsman’s report on the allegations of police bias against Asian students: Report to the Honourable T A Griffiths MP, Minister for Police and Emergency Services' (1993)

Landman, R.A., '“A counterfeit friendship”: Mate crime and people with learning disabilities' (2014), Journal of Adult Protection, 16(6), pp.355-366
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Lang, K., 'Vorurteilskriminalität – Eine Untersuchung vorurteilsmotivierter Taten im Strafrecht und deren Verfolgung durch Polizei, Staatsanwaltschaft und Gerichte' (2015), Nomos
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Larkin, J.C. & Pines, H.A., 'No fat persons need apply: Experimental studies of the overweight stereotype and hiring preference' (1979), Work and Occupations, 6(3), pp.312-327
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Larsson, G. & Stjernholm, S., 'Islamophobia in Sweden: Muslim advocacy and hate-crime statistics' (2016), in D. Pratt & R. Woodlock (Eds.), Fear of Muslims?, Boundaries of religious freedom: Regulating religion in diverse societies 3, pp. 153-166
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Laster, K. & Taylor, V.L., 'Law for our multicultural society?: No worries' (1995), in Selby, H. (ed.), Tomorrow's Law 210

LaViolette, N., 'Independent human rights documentation and sexual minorities: An ongoing challenge for the Canadian refugee determination process' (2009), The International Journal of Human Rights, 13(2-3), pp.437-492
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Law Commission (Law Com No 213), 'Hate crime: The case for extending the existing offences' (2013), London: Law Commission
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Law Commission (Law Com No 348), 'Hate crime: Should the current offences be extended?' (2014)
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Law Enforcement Support Section (LESS) & Crime Statistics Management Unit (CSMU), 'Hate crime data collection guidelines and training manual (Version 2.0)' (2015), Criminal Justice Information Services (CJIS) Division Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program
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Law, I. & Sayyid, S., 'Racist futures: Themes and prospects' (2007), Ethnic and Racial Studies, 30(4), pp.527-533
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Lawrence, C., 'Sacred selfish: Effects of the rise of fear' (2007), Summer Impact 15

Lawrence, F.M., 'Punishing hate: Bias crimes under American law' (2002), USA: Harvard University Press

Lawrence, F.M., 'The evolving federal role in bias crime law enforcement and the Hate Crimes Prevention Act of 2007' (2008), Stanford Law & Policy Review, 19(2), pp.251-282
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Lawrence, F.M., 'The hate crime project and its limitations: Evaluating the societal gains and risk in bias crime law enforcement' (2007), Social Consciousness in Legal Decision Making, pp.209-226
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Lawrence, F. M., 'The punishment of hate: Toward a normative theory of bias-motivated crimes' (1994), Michigan Law Review, 93(2), pp.320-381
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Lazaridis, G. & Tsagkroni, V., 'Posing for legitimacy? Identity and praxis of far-right populism in Greece' (2016), in G. Lazaridis, G. Campani & A. Benveniste (Eds.), The Rise of the Far Right in Europe (pp.201-237). London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan
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Lazaridis, G. & Tsagkroni, V., 'Majority identitarian populism in Britain' (2016), in G. Lazaridis, G. Campani & A. Benveniste (Eds.), The rise of the Far Right in Europe (pp.239-272). London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan
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Lazaridis, G. & Veikou, M., 'The rise of the far right in Greece and opposition to ‘othering’, hate speech, and crime by civil and civic organizations' (2016), Journal of Civil Society, pp.1-17
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Leach, T., 'Sexuality and transgender discrimination' (1996), HIV/AIDS Legal Link, 7(1), 26

Leader, T., Mullen, B. & Rice, D., 'Complexity and valence in Ethnophaulisms and exclusion of ethnic out-groups: What puts the “hate” into hate speech?' (2009), Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96(1), pp.170-182
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Lee Badgett, M.V., 'The wage effects of sexual orientation discrimination' (1995), Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 48(4), pp.726-739
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Lee, B.A. & Schreck, C.J., 'Danger on the streets: Marginality and victimization among homeless people' (2005), American Behavioral Scientist, 48(8), pp.1055-1081
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Lee, Y., Vue, S., Seklecki, R. & Ma, Y., 'How did Asian Americans respond to negative stereotypes and hate crimes?' (2007), American Behavioral Scientist, 51(2), pp.271-293
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Leets, L., 'Experiencing hate speech: Perceptions and responses to Anti-Semitism and Antigay speech' (2002), Journal of Social Issues, 58(2), pp.341-361
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Legal and Constitutional Legislation Committee, Parliament of Australia - Senate, 'Canberra Racial Hatred Bill 1994 report' (1995)

Lentin, R., 'Ireland: Racial state and crisis racism' (2007), Ethnic and Racial Studies, 30(4), pp.610-627
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Leonard, W., Mitchell, A., Pitts, M. & Patel, S., 'Coming forward – The underreporting of heterosexist violence and same sex partner abuse in Victoria' (2009), Australian Research Centre in Sex, Health & Society (ARCSHS).
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Levin, B., 'Hate crimes: Worse by definition' (1999), Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 15(1), pp.6-21
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Levin, B., 'From slavery to hate crime laws: The emergence of race and status based protection in American criminal law' (2002), Journal of Social Issues, 58(2), pp.227-245
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Levin, B., 'Extremism and the constitution: How America’s legal evolution affects the response to extremism' (2001), American Behavioral Scientist, 45(4), pp.714-754
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Levin, B., 'The original web of hate: Revolution Muslim and American homegrown extremists' (2015), American Behavioral Scientist, 59(12), pp.1609-1630
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Levin, B., 'Reassessing laws on hate violence against the homeless' (2015), American Behavioral Scientist, 59(13), pp.1715-1728
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Levin, B., & Amster, S., 'Making hate history: Hate crime and policing in America’s most diverse city' (2007), American Behavioral Scientist, 51(2), pp.329-348
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Levin, B., Nolan, J.J. & Perry, B., 'Disrupting the mantra of multiculturalism: Hate crime in Canada' (2015), American Behavioral Scientist, 59(13), pp.1637-1654
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Levin, J. & McDevitt, J., 'Hate crimes: The rising tide of bigotry and bloodshed' (2001), Westview Press Inc.

Levin, J. & McDevitt, J., 'Police response' (1993), Hate Crimes, pp.159-178
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Levin, J. & Rabrenovic, G., 'Hate crimes and ethnic conflict: An introduction' (2001), American Behavioral Scientist, 45(4), pp.575-587
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Levin, J. & Reichelmann, A., 'From thrill to defensive motivation: The role of group threat in the changing nature of hate-motivated assaults' (2015), American Behavioral Scientist, 59(12), pp.1546-1561
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Levin, J., & McDevitt, J. , 'Hate crimes revisited: America’s war on those who are different' (2002), Boulder; Oxford: Westview Press

Levin, J., Rabrenovic, G., Ferraro, V., Doran, T., & Methe, D., 'When a crime committed by a teenager becomes a hate crime: Results from two studies' (2007), American Behavioral Scientist, 51(2), pp.246-257
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Levy, B.L. & Levy, D.L., 'When love meets hate: The relationship between state policies on gay and lesbian rights and hate crime incidence' (2016), Social Science Research [online]
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Lewis, C.S., 'Tough-on-crime tolerance: The cultural criminalization of bigotry in the Post-Civil Rights Era' (2012), Critical Criminology, 20(3), pp.275-292
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Lewis, C. S., 'Tough on hate?: The cultural politics of hate crimes' (2013), New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press
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Lewis, T.T., Kravitz, H.M., Janssen, I. & Powell, L.H., 'Self-reported experiences of discrimination and visceral fat in middle-aged African-American and caucasian women' (2011), American Journal of Epidemiology, 173(11), pp.1223-1231
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