Publications: Defining hate crime

A

Adams, M.S. & Toth, R.C., 'The unanticipated consequences of hate crime legislation' (2006), Judicature, 90(3), pp.129-134
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Al-Hakim, M., 'Making a home for the homeless in hate crime legislation' (2015), Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 30(10), pp.1755-1781
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Allport, G. W., 'The nature of prejudice' (1954), Reading, MA: Addison - Wesley

Ambikaipaker, M., 'Liberal exceptions: Violent racism and routine anti-racist failure in Britain' (2015), Ethnic and Racial Studies, pp.1-16
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Anti-Defamation League, 'Hate crime laws: A comprehensive guide' (1994), New York

Ardley, J., 'Hate crimes: A brief review' (2005), The International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 25(12), pp.54-66
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Arnold, R., 'Systematic racist violence in Russia between ‘hate crime’ and ‘ethnic conflict’' (2015), Theoretical Criminology, 19(2), pp.239-256
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Ault, A., 'When it happens to men, it’s “hate” and “a crime”' (1997), Journal of Poverty, 1(1), pp.49-63
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B

Bell, J., 'Deciding when hate is a crime: The first amendment, police detectives and the identification of hate crime' (2002), Rutgers Race and the Law Review, 4(1), pp.33-76
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Berk, R.A., 'Thinking about hate-motivated crimes' (1990), Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 5(3), pp.334-349
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Berk, R.A., Boyd, E.A. & Hamner, K.M., 'Thinking more clearly about hate-motivated crimes' (1992), Herek, G.M. & Berrill, K. (eds.), 'Hate Crimes: Confronting Violence Against Lesbians and Gay Men' (1992), USA: Sage Publications

Blake, M., 'Geeks and monsters: Bias crimes and social identity' (2001), Law and Philosophy, 20(2), pp.121-139
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Brax, D., 'Hate crime concepts and their moral foundations: A universal framework' (2016), in J. Schweppe & M.A. Walters, The globalization of hate: Internationalizing hate crime? (pp.49-64), Oxford: Oxford University Press
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Brax, D. & Munthe, C., 'The philosophical aspects of hate crime and hate crime legislation: Introducing the special section on the philosophy of hate crime' (2015), Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 30(10), pp.1687-1695
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Brudholm, T., 'Conceptualizing hatred globally: Is hate crime a human rights violation' (2016), in J. Schweppe & M.A. Walters, The globalization of hate: Internationalizing hate crime? (pp.31-48), Oxford: Oxford University Press
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C

Campo-Engelstein, L., 'Rape as a hate crime: An analysis of New York law' (2016), Hypatia, 31(1), pp.91-106
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Chakraborti, N., 'Hate crime: Concepts, policy and future directions' (2010), Devon: Willan Publishing

Chakraborti, N., 'Framing the boundaries of hate crime' (2014), in Hall, N., Corb, A., Giannasi, P. & Grieve, J. (2014) The Routledge International Handbook on Hate Crime. London: Routledge

Chakraborti, N. & Garland, J., 'Reconceptualizing hate crime victimisation through the lens of vulnerability and difference' (2012), Theoretical Criminology, 16(4), pp.499-51
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Chakraborti, N., & Garland, J., 'Hate crime: Impact, causes and responses' (2009), UK: SAGE Publications

Chermak, S., Freilich, J. & Suttmoeller, M., 'The organizational dynamics of far-right hate groups in the United States: Comparing violent to nonviolent organizations' (2013), Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 36(3), pp.193-218
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Coester, M., 'Hate crimes: Das Konzept der hate crimes aus den USA unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Rechtsextremismus in Deutschland' (2008), Peter Lang GmbH, Internationaler Verlag der Wissenschaften (1st ed.)
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Cogan, J.C., 'Hate crime as a crime category worthy of policy attention' (2002), American Behavioral Scientist, 46(1), pp.173-185
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Cogan, J.C. & Marcus-Newhall, A., 'Hate crimes: Research, policy and action. Introduction' (2002), American Behavioral Scientist, 46(1), pp.8-13
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Cole, M., 'A Plethora of ‘suitable enemies’: British racism at the dawn of the twenty-first century' (2009), Ethnic and Racial Studies, 32(9), pp.1671-1685
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College of Policing, 'Hate crime operational guide' (2014)
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Cotter, J.M. , 'Sounds of hate: White power rock and roll and the neo-Nazi skinhead subculture' (1999), Terrorism and Political Violence, 11(2), pp.111-140
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Craig, K.M., 'Examining hate-motivated aggression: A review of the social psychological literature on hate crimes as a distinct form of aggression' (2002), Aggression and Violent Behavior, 7(1), pp.85-101
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Craig, K.M. & Waldo, C.R., '“So, what’s a hate crime anyway?” Young adults’ perceptions of hate crimes, victims, and perpetrators' (1996), Law and Human Behaviour, 20(2), pp.113-129
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Cronin, S., McDevitt, J., Farrell, A., & Nolan, J.J., 'Bias-crime reporting: Organizational responses to ambiguity, uncertainty, and infrequency in eight police departments' (2007), American Behavioral Scientist, 51(2), pp.213-225,227-231
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D

Deloughery, K., King, R.D., Asal, V. & Rethemeyer, R.K., 'Analysis of factors related to hate crime and terrorism' (2012), Final Report to teh National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism. College Park, MD: START.
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Dillof, A.M., 'Punishing bias: An examination of the theoretical foundations of bias crime statutes' (1997), Northwestern University Law Review, 91(3), pp.1015-1081
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Dunn, P., 'Sexuality: Is there a hierarchy of discrimination?' (1996), Probation Journal, 43(2), pp.64-69
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E

Edwards, C., 'Pathologising the victim: Law and the construction of people with disabilities as victims of crime in Ireland' (2014), Disability & Society, 29(5), pp.685-698
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F

Formby, E., 'Limitations of focussing on homophobic, biphobic and transphobic ‘bullying’ to understand and address LGBT young people’s experiences within and beyond school' (2015), Sex Education, pp.1-15
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G

Gale, L.R., Carrington Heath, W. & Ressler, R.W., 'An economic analysis of hate crime' (2002), Eastern Economic Journal, 28(2), pp.203-216
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Gan, L., Williams, R.C. & Wiseman, T., 'A simple model of optimal hate crime legislation' (2011), Economic Inquiry, 49(3)
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Garland J., Spalek, B. & Chakraborti, N., 'Hearing lost voices: Issues in researching ‘’hidden’’ minority ethnic communities' (2006), British Journal of Criminology, 46(3), pp.423-437
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Garland, J. & Funnell, Corinne, 'Defining hate crime internationally: Issues and conundrums' (2016), in J. Schweppe & M.A. Walters, The globalization of hate: Internationalizing hate crime? (pp.15-30), Oxford: Oxford University Press
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Giannasi, P., 'Hate crime in the United Kingdom' (2014), in Hall, N., Corb, A., Giannasi, P. & Grieve, J. (2014) The Routledge International Handbook on Hate Crime. London: Routledge

Gladfelter, A.S., Lantz, B. & Ruback, R.B., 'The complexity of hate crime and bias activity: Variation across contexts and types of bias' (2015), Justice Quarterly
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Grattet, R. & Jenness, V., 'The birth and maturation of hate crime policy in the United States ' (2001), American Behavioral Scientist, 45(4), pp.668-696
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Green, D.P., McFalls, L.H. & Smith, J.K., 'Hate crime: An emergent research agenda' (2001), Annual Review of Sociology, 27, 479-504
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Greenwald, A.G. & Pettigrew, T.F., 'With malice toward none and charity for some: Ingroup favouritism enables discrimination' (2014), American Psychologist, 69(7), pp.669-684
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H

Hall, N., 'Hate crime' (2013), New York: Routledge

Hall, N., 'Making sense of numbers: The social construction of hate crime in London and New York City' (2008), in Goodey, J. & Aromaa, K. (eds.) (2008) Hate Crime: papers from the 2006 and 2007 Stockholm Criminology Symposiums. Criminal Justice Press.

Hall, N., 'Hate crime (2nd Edition)' (2013), Cullompton, UK: Willan Publishing

Hall, N. & Hayden, C., 'Is ‘hate crime’ a relevant and useful way of conceptualising some forms of school bullying?' (2007), International Journal on School Violence, 3, pp.3-24

Hall, N., Corb, A., Giannasi, P., & Grieve, J. (eds.), 'The international handbook of hate crime' (2014), London: Routledge.

Harel, A. & Parchomovsky, G., 'On hate and equality' (1999), The Yale Law Journal, 109(3), pp.507-539
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