Publications: Law and hate crime

A

Abbas, T. & Awan, I., 'Limits of UK Counterterrorism Policy and its implications for Islamophobia and Far Right extremism' (2015), International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy, 4(3), pp.16-29
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Adams, D.M., 'Punishing hate and achieving equality' (2005), Criminal Justice Ethics, 24(1), pp.19-30
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Adams, M.S. & Toth, R.C., 'The unanticipated consequences of hate crime legislation' (2006), Judicature, 90(3), pp.129-134
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Akhtar, S., 'The mental pain of minorities' (2014), British Journal of Psychotherapy, 30(2), pp.136-153
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Akrivopoulou, C.M., 'Dignity as the ultimate boundary to the freedom of speech: An account of Jeremy Waldron’s “harm in hate speech” argument' (2014), Human Rights and Ethics: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools and Applications, 4(99), pp.1805-1810
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Al-Hakim, M., 'Making room for hate crime legislation in liberal societies' (2010), Criminal Law and Philosophy, 4(3), pp.341-358
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Al-Hakim, M., 'Making a home for the homeless in hate crime legislation' (2015), Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 30(10), pp.1755-1781
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Al-Hakim, M. & Dimock, S., 'Hate as an aggravating factor in sentencing' (2012), New Criminal Law Review, 15(4), pp.572-611
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Altman, A., 'The democratic legitimacy of bias crime laws: Public reason and the political process' (2001), Law and Philosophy, 20(2), pp.141-173
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Ambikaipaker, M., 'Liberal exceptions: Violent racism and routine anti-racist failure in Britain' (2015), Ethnic and Racial Studies, pp.1-16
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Amnesty International UK, 'Tackling hate crime in the UK: A background briefing paper from Amnesty International UK' (2017), London: The Human Rights Action Centre
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Anti-Defamation League, 'Hate crime laws: A comprehensive guide' (1994), New York

Anti-Defamation League, 'Hate crime laws: Policies and procedures for law enforcement agencies' (1998), New York: Author

Anti-Defamation League (ADL), 'State hate crime statutory provisions' (2014)
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Antjoule, N., '3. Hate crime laws: A guide for LGBT people' (2016), National LGBT Hate Crime Partnership
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Ardill, A. & Wardle, B., 'Firebombs and Ferguson: A review of hate crime laws as applied to child sex offenders' (2009), Alternative Law Journal, 34(4), pp.257-259
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Ashworth, A., 'Hate crime' (2013), The Criminal Law Review, 9, pp.709-710
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Asquith, N., 'The harms of verbal and textual hatred' (2009), in Perry, B. (ed.), Hate crimes: The consequences of hate crime Volume 2. Praeger Publishers.

Axelson, R., 'State-sponsored hatred and persecution on the grounds of sexual orientation: The role of international criminal law' (2016), in J. Schweppe & M.A. Walters, The globalization of hate: Internationalizing hate crime? (pp.277-293), Oxford: Oxford University Press
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B

Baehr, A.R., 'A feminist liberal approach to hate crime legislation' (2003), Journal of Social Philosophy, 34(1), pp.134-152
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Bakalis, C., 'Legislating against hatred: The Law Commission’s report on hate crime' (2015), The Criminal Law Review, 3, pp.192-207
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Bakalis, C., 'Regulating hate crime in the digital age' (2016), in J. Schweppe & M.A. Walters, The globalization of hate: Internationalizing hate crime? (pp.263-276), Oxford: Oxford University Press
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Bakalis, C., 'The victims of hate crime and the principles of the criminal law' (2017), Legal Studies [online], p.1-21
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Bakalis, C., 'Rethinking cyberhate laws' (2017), Information and Communications Technology Law [online], pp. 1-25
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Bakken, T., 'Liberty and equality through freedom of expression: The human rights questions behind ‘hate crime’ laws' (2000), The International Journal of Human Rights, 4(2), pp.1-12
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Bales, W.D. & Piquero, A.R., 'Racial/ethnic differentials in sentencing to incarceration' (2012), Justice Quarterly, 29(5), pp.742-773
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Baradaran, S., 'Race, prediction, and discretion' (2013), George Washington Law Review, 81(1), pp.157-222
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Baron, M., 'Hate crime legislation reconsidered' (2016), Metaphilosophy, 47(4-5), pp.504-523
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Beale, S. S., 'Federalizing hate crimes: Symbolic politics, expressive law, or tool for criminal enforcement?' (2000), Boston University Law Review, 80(5), pp.1227-1281
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Becker, P.J., 'The creation of Ohio’s ethnic intimidation law: Triggering events, media campaigns, and interest group activity' (1999), American Journal of Criminal Justice, 23(2), pp.247-265
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Bell, J., 'Policing hatred: Police bias units and the construction of hate crime' (1997), Michigan Journal of Race & Law, 2, pp.421-460
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Bell, J, 'Policing hatred: Law enforcement, civil rights, and hate crime' (2002), New York: New York University Press

Benzirgan, B., 'The problematization of hate crime legislation in Turkey: The re-emergence of legitimate victims' (2016), in J. Schweppe & M.A. Walters, The globalization of hate: Internationalizing hate crime? (pp.142-156), Oxford: Oxford University Press
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Berard, T. J., 'Hate crimes and their criminalization' (2010), in M. Peyrot & S. L. Burns (Eds.), New Approaches to Social Problems Treatment (Research in Social Problems and Public Policy) (Vol. 17, pp. 15-40), Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing Limited

Blazak, R., 'Isn’t every crime a hate crime?: The case for hate crime laws' (2011), Sociology Compass, 5(4), pp.244-255
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Bleich, E., 'Hate crime policy in Western Europe: Responding to racist violence in Britain, Germany, and France' (2007), American Behavioral Scientist, 51(2), pp.149-165
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Bleich, E., 'The rise of hate speech and hate crime laws in liberal democracies' (2011), Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 37(6), pp.917-934
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Bleich, E. & Hart, R.K., 'Quantifying hate: The evolution of German approaches to measuring ‘hate crime’' (2008), German Politics, 17(1), pp.63-80
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Bleich, E. & Lambert, F., 'Why are racist associations free in some states and banned in others? Evidence from 10 liberal democracies' (2013), West European Politics, 36(1), pp.122-149
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Blosnich, J.R., Marsiglio, M.C., Gao, S., Gordon, A.J., Shipherd, J.C., Kauth, M., Brown, G.R. & Fine, M.J., 'Mental health of transgender veterans in US States with and without discrimination and hate crime legal protection' (2016), American Journal of Public Health, 106(3), pp.534-540
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Bostock, J., 'Getting away with murder' (2001), OpenMind, 112, pp.22-23

Botcherby, S., Glen, F., Iganski, P., Jochelson, K. & Lagou, S., 'Equality groups’ perceptions and experience of crime: Analysis of the British Crime Survey 2007-08, 2008-09 and 2009-10' (2011), Manchester: Equality and Human Rights Commission.
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Bourne, J., 'Does legislating against racial violence work? ' (2002), Race & Class, 44(2), pp.81-85
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Boyd, E.A., Berk, R.A. & Hamner, K.M., '‘Motivated by hatred or prejudice’: Categorization of hate-motivated crimes in two police divisions' (1996), Law and Society Review, 30(4), pp.819-850
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Brax, D., 'Motives, reasons, and responsibility in hate/bias crime legislation' (2016), Criminal Justice Ethics [online], pp.1-19
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Brax, D. & Munthe, C., 'The philosophical aspects of hate crime and hate crime legislation: Introducing the special section on the philosophy of hate crime' (2015), Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 30(10), pp.1687-1695
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Breen, D. & Nel, J.A., 'South Africa – A home for all? The need for hate crime legislation' (2011), South African Crime Quarterly, 38
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Brennan, F., 'Punishing Islamophobic hostility: Are any lessons to be learned from racially hostile crimes?' (2003), Journal of Civil Liberties, 8(1), pp.28-50
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Brennan, F., 'Racially motivated crime: The response of the criminal justice system' (1999), Criminal Law Review, Jan, pp.17-28
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Brennan, F., 'Legislating against internet race hate' (2009), Information & Communications Technology Law, 18(2), pp.123-153
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