Publications: Hate crime models

A

Alden, H.L. & Parker, K.F., 'Gender role ideology, Homophobia and hate crime: Linking attitudes to macro-level anti-gay and Lesbian hate crimes' (2005), Deviant Behavior, 26(4), pp.321-343
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Ali, N., Fleisher, W. & Erickson, J., 'Psychiatrists’ and psychiatry residents’ attitudes toward transgender people' (2016), Academic Psychiatry, 40(2), pp.268-273
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Arnold, R., 'Systematic racist violence in Russia between ‘hate crime’ and ‘ethnic conflict’' (2015), Theoretical Criminology, 19(2), pp.239-256
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B

Bakken, T., 'Liberty and equality through freedom of expression: The human rights questions behind ‘hate crime’ laws' (2000), The International Journal of Human Rights, 4(2), pp.1-12
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Battle, J. & Lemelle, A.J., 'Gender differences in African American attitudes toward gay males' (2002), The Western Journal of Black Studies, 26(3), pp.134-139
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Berk, R.A., 'Thinking about hate-motivated crimes' (1990), Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 5(3), pp.334-349
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Blee, K.M., 'Racial violence in the United States' (2005), Ethnic and Racial Studies, 28(4), pp.499-619
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Bleich, E. & Hart, R.K., 'Quantifying hate: The evolution of German approaches to measuring ‘hate crime’' (2008), German Politics, 17(1), pp.63-80
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Borell, K., 'When is the time to hate? A research review on the impact of dramatic events on Islamophobia and Islamophobic hate crimes in Europe' (2015), Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations, pp.1-13
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Bradley, M.S., 'Symbolizing hate: The extent and influence of organized hate group indicators' (2007), Journal of Crime and Justice, 30(1), pp.1-15
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Burt, C.H., Simons, R.L. & Gibbons, F.X., 'Racial discrimination, ethnic-racial socialization, and crime: A micro-sociological model of risk and resilience' (2012), American Sociological Review, 77(4), pp.648-677
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C

Campo-Engelstein, L., 'Rape as a hate crime: An analysis of New York law' (2016), Hypatia, 31(1), pp.91-106
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Cowan, G., Heiple, B., Marquez, C., Khatchadourian, D. & McNevin, M., 'Heterosexuals’ attitudes toward hate crimes and hate speech against gays and lesbians: Old-fashioned and modern heterosexism' (2005), Journal of Homosexuality, 49(2), pp.67-82
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Cowburn, M., Duggan, M. & Pollock, E., 'Working with different values: Extremism, hate and sex crimes' (2013), in Cowburn, M., Duggan, M., Robinson, A. & Senior, P. (2013) Values in Criminology and Community Justice. University of Bristol: Policy Press.

D

Dickter, C.L., 'Confronting hate: Heterosexuals’ responses to anti-gay comments' (2012), Journal of homosexuality, 59(8), pp.1113-1130
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E

Edwards, C., 'Pathologising the victim: Law and the construction of people with disabilities as victims of crime in Ireland' (2014), Disability & Society, 29(5), pp.685-698
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G

Gale, L.R., Carrington Heath, W. & Ressler, R.W., 'An economic analysis of hate crime' (2002), Eastern Economic Journal, 28(2), pp.203-216
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Garland, J., '‘It’s a Mosher just been banged for no reason’: Assessing targeted violence against Goths and the parameters of hate crime' (2010), International Review of Victimology, 17(2), pp.159-177
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Gladfelter, A.S., Lantz, B. & Ruback, R.B., 'The complexity of hate crime and bias activity: Variation across contexts and types of bias' (2015), Justice Quarterly
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Green, D.P. & Spry, A.D., 'Hate crime research: Design and measurement strategies for improving causal inference' (2014), Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 30(3), pp.228-246
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H

Hall, N., 'Hate crime' (2013), New York: Routledge

Hall, N., Corb, A., Giannasi, P., & Grieve, J. (eds.), 'The international handbook of hate crime' (2014), London: Routledge.

Heard, C., 'The law on hate crime' (2013), Journal of Adult Protection, 15(3), pp.164-166
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Hunt, J.S., 'Implicit bias and hate crimes: A psychological framework and critical race theory analysis' (2007), Social Consciousness in Legal Decision Making, pp.247-265
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I

Iganski, P., 'Europe' (2014), in Grant, P. (ed.) State of the World's Minorities and Indigenous Peoples 2014. London: Minority Rights Group International.
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J

Jenness, V. & Broad, K., 'Hate crimes: New social movements and the politics of violence' (1997), Hawthorne, NY: Aldine de Gruter

K

King, R.D., 'Hate crimes: Perspectives on offending and the law' (2009), Handbook on Crime and Deviance: Handbooks of Sociology and Social Research, pp.525-549
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L

Levin, B., Nolan, J.J. & Perry, B., 'Disrupting the mantra of multiculturalism: Hate crime in Canada' (2015), American Behavioral Scientist, 59(13), pp.1637-1654
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Levin, J. & Reichelmann, A., 'From thrill to defensive motivation: The role of group threat in the changing nature of hate-motivated assaults' (2015), American Behavioral Scientist, 59(12), pp.1546-1561
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Lewis, C.S., 'Tough-on-crime tolerance: The cultural criminalization of bigotry in the Post-Civil Rights Era' (2012), Critical Criminology, 20(3), pp.275-292
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Lieberman, J.D., Arndt, J., Personius, J. & Cook, A., 'Vicarious annihilation: The effect of mortality salience on perceptions of hate crimes' (2001), Law and Human Behaviour, 25(6), pp.547-566
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Lyons, C.J., 'Stigma or sympathy? Attributions of fault to hate crime victims and offenders' (2006), Social Psychology Quarterly, 69(1), pp.39-59
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M

Macginty, R., 'Hate crimes in deeply divided societies: The case of Northern Ireland' (2000), New Political Science, 22(1), pp.49-60
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Mason, G., 'Hate crime and the image of the stranger' (2005), British Journal of Criminology, 45(6), pp.837-859
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Mason, G., 'Being hated: Stranger or familiar?' (2005), Social and Legal Studies, 14(4), pp.585-605
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Mason, G., 'The hate threshold: Emotion, causation and difference in the construction of prejudice-motivated crime' (2014), Social and Legal Studies, 23(3), pp.293-314
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May, L. & Strikwerda, R., 'Men in groups: Collective responsibility for rape' (1994), Hypatia, 9(2), pp.134-151
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McPhail, B.A., 'Gender-bias hate crimes: A review' (2002), Trauma, Violence & Abuse, 3(2), pp.125-143
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Medoff, M.H., 'Allocation of time and hateful behavior: A theoretical and positive analysis of hate and hate crimes' (1999), The American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 58(4), pp.959-973
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Meer, N., 'Racialization and religion: Race, culture and difference in the study of antisemitism and Islamophobia' (2013), Ethnic and Racial Studies, 36(3), pp.385-398
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Meyer, D., 'Resisting hate crime discourse: Queer and intersectional challenges to neoliberal hate crime laws' (2014), Critical Criminology, 22(1), pp.113-125
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Morewitz, S.J., 'Hate crimes' (2008), Death Threats and Violence, pp.102-118
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Morgan, J., 'US hate crime legislation: A legal model to avoid in Australia' (2002), Journal of Sociology, 38(1), pp.25-48
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Muholi, Z., 'Thinking through lesbian rape' (2004), Agenda, 18(61), pp.116-125
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N

Nadal, K.L., Whitman, C.N., Davis, L.S., Erazo, T. & Davidoff, K.C., 'Microaggressions toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and genderqueer people: A review of the literature' (2016), Journal of Sex Research, 53(4-5), pp.488-508
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Nolan III, James J., McDevitt, J., Cronin, S. & Farrell, A., 'Learning to see hate crimes: A framework for understanding and clarifying ambiguities in hate crime classification' (2004), Criminal Justice Studies: A Critical Journal of Crime, Law and Society, 17(1), pp.91-105
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O

Opotow, S. & McClelland, S.I., 'The intensification of hating: A theory' (2007), Social Justice Research, 20(1), pp.68-97
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P

Pendo, E.A., 'Recognising violence against women: Gender and the Hate Crimes Statistics Act' (1994), Harvard Women's Law Journal, 17, pp.157

Perry, B., '“Button-down terror”: The metamorphosis of the hate movement' (2000), Sociological Focus, 33(2), pp.113-131
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Petrosino, C. & Pace, J., 'Social cohesion, collective efficacy, and the response of a Cape Verdean community to hate crime: Learning a new reality' (2015), American Behavioral Scientist, 59(13), pp.1681-1697
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